How can liberalism thrive in the 21st century?


Liberalism has been on the back foot for more than a decade in Western democracies. The rise of populism is seen as a direct response and the best proof of the intrinsic weakness of this political philosophy. The ongoing assault on liberalism begs three fundamental questions: What is liberalism? Is it fair to blame liberalism for contemporary political and economic maelstroms?  And third, how does liberalism need to evolve to thrive in the 21st century?  As far as the first question is concerned, this paper aims to highlight that liberalism is an umbrella term which brings together a broad array of diverging perspectives regarding human liberty. Consequently, to talk about liberalism requires conceptual clarity, precision and consistency. Secondly, the paper explores the root causes of the liberal crisis which go beyond the essence of the liberal thought. And third, the paper looks at some practical reforms which may help liberalism regain its appeal in the anti-liberal age.

Biografía del autor/a

Maciej Bazela, Instituto Panamericano de Alta Dirección de Empresa (IPADE)

Director y profesor del área de Entorno Político y Social


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